Organic Chemistry Portal
Chemicals >> Reducing Agents

Hydrogen

Name Reactions


Rosenmund Reduction


Recent Literature


A Pd/C-catalyzed hydrogenation using diphenylsulfide as a catalyst poison selectively reduces olefin and acetylene functionalities without hydrogenolysis of aromatic carbonyls and halogens, benzyl esters, and N-Cbz protective groups.
A. Mori, Y. Miyakawa, E. Ohashi, T. Haga, T. Maegawa, H. Sajiki, Org. Lett., 2006, 8, 3279-3281.


A palladium-fibroin complex catalyzed the chemoselective hydrogenation of acetylenes, olefins and azides in the presence of aromatic ketones and aldehydes, halides, N-Cbz protective groups and benzyl esters which are readily hydrogenated using Pd/C or Pd/C(en) as a catalyst.
T. Ikawa, H. Sajiki, K. Hirota, Tetrahedron, 2005, 61, 2217-2231.


The use of hydrogen micro and nanobubbles (MNBs) enables an autoclave-free, gas-liquid-solid multiphase hydrogenation of carbon-carbon unsaturated bonds, in which a high concentration of hydrogen gas is maintained in the liquid phase.
N. Mase, S. Isomura, M. Toda, N. Watanabe, Synlett, 2013, 24, 2225-2228.


In situ preparation of an active Pd/C catalyst from Pd(OAc)2 and charcoal in methanol enables a simple, highly reproducible protocol for the hydrogenation of alkenes and alkynes and for the hydrogenolysis of O-benzyl ethers. Mild reaction conditions and low catalyst loadings, as well as the absence of contamination of the product by palladium residues, make this a sustainable, useful process.
F.-X. Felpin, E. Fouquet, Chem. Eur. J., 2010, 12440-12445.


(Tetraphenylporphyrin)palladium can be used as a catalyst for the chemoselective and stereoselective hydrogenation of alkynes to cis-alkenes in good to excellent yields via syn-addition of hydrogen. Alkynes containing various functional groups were tolerated.
R. Nishibayashi, T. Kurahashi, S. Matsubara, Synlett, 2014, 25, 1287-1290.


Copper-catalyzed semihydrogenation of internal alkynes proceeds under an atmosphere of hydrogen (5 atm) at 100 °C in the presence of a readily available catalyst to give various Z-alkenes stereoselectively.
K. Semba, R. Kameyama, Y. Nakao, Synlett, 2015, 26, 318-322.


In a highly enantioselective cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of 1,1-diarylethenes at ambient conditions with a bench-stable chiral oxazoline iminopyridine-cobalt complex as precatalyst, a unique o-chloride effect achieves high enantioselectivity. Easy removal as well as further transformations of the chloro group make this protocol a potentially useful alternative to synthesize various chiral 1,1-diarylethanes.
J. Chen, C. Chen, C. Ji, Z. Lu, Org. Lett., 2016, 18, 1594-1597.


A one-pot, three-step strategy for the regioselective semihydrogenation of dienes uses 9-BBN-H as a temporary protective group for alkenes. Yields range from 55% to 95%, and the reaction tolerates various common functional groups. Additionally, the final elimination step of the sequence can be replaced with a peroxide-mediated alkylborane oxidation, generating regioselectively alcohols.
T. J. A. Graham, T. H. Poole, C. N. Reese, B. C. Goess, J. Org. Chem., 2011, 76, 4132-4138.


A mild, complete hydrogenation of aromatic rings catalyzed by heterogeneous 10% Rh/C proceeds at 80 °C in water under 5 atm of H2 pressure and is applicable to the hydrogenation of various carbon and heteroaromatic compounds such as alkylbenzenes, biphenyls, pyridines and furans.
Maegawa, A. Akashi, H. Sajiki, Synlett, 2006, 1440-1442.


Bromo and chloro substituents serve as excellent blocking groups on aromatic rings. The halo group can be removed by catalytic hydrogenation under neutral conditions. As expected, bromides are reduced more quickly than chlorides and the reaction requires the use of less catalyst. Bromides can be selectively reduced in the presence of nitro, chloro, cyano, keto, or carboxylic acid groups.
A. Ramanathan, L. S. Jimenez, Synthesis, 2010, 217-220.


Pincer ruthenium complexes bearing a monodentate N-heterocyclic carbene ligand have been used as powerful hydrogenation catalysts. With an atmospheric pressure of hydrogen gas, aromatic, heteroaromatic, and aliphatic esters as well as lactones were converted into the corresponding alcohols.
O. Ogata, Y. Nakayama, H. Nara, M. Fujiwhara, Y. Kayaki, J. Zhu, Org. Lett., 2016, 18, 3894-3897.


In the presence of a phenol ligand, a cationic ruthenium hydride complex exhibited high catalytic activity for the hydrogenolysis of carbonyl compounds to yield the corresponding aliphatic products. The reaction showed exceptionally high chemoselectivity toward the carbonyl reduction over alkene hydrogenation.
N. Kalutharage, C. S. Yi, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2015, 137, 11105-11114.


An iron complex containing electronically coupled acidic and hydridic hydrogens catalyzes the hydrogenation of ketones under mild conditions and shows high chemoselectivity for aldehydes, ketones, and imines. Isolated carbon double and triple bonds, aryl halides, nitrates, epoxides, and ester functions are unaffected by the hydrogenation conditions.
C. P. Casey, H. Guan, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 5816-5817.


A highly efficient asymmetric hydrogenation of α-substituted α,β-unsaturated acyclic ketones in the presence of chiral spiro iridium complexes provides chiral 2-substituted allylic alcohols and a concise route to (-)-mesembrine.
Q.-Q. Zhang, J.-H. Xie, X.-H. Yang, J.-B. Xie, Q.-L. Zhou, Org. Lett., 2012, 14, 6158-6161.


A well-defined cationic Ru-H complex catalyzes reductive etherification of aldehydes and ketones with alcohols using water as the solvent and cheaply available molecular hydrogen as the reducing agent to afford unsymmetrical ethers in a highly chemoselective manner.
N. Kalutharage, C. S. Yi, Org. Lett., 2015, 17, 1778-1781.


Ruthenium carbene complexes catalyze ring closing metathesis (RCM) and a subsequent hydrogenation after activation with sodium hydride. Hydrogenation of cyclopentenols proceeds smoothly at ambient temperature and under 1 atm of hydrogen in toluene.
B. Schmidt, M. Pohler, Org. Biomol. Chem., 2003, 1, 2512-2517.


The preparation of alkenyl halides of any length from inexpensive starting reagents is reported. Standard organic transformations were used to prepare straight-chain α-olefin halides in excellent overall yields with no detectable olefin isomerization and full recovery of any unreacted starting material.
T. W. Baughman, J. C. Sworen, K. B. Wagener, Tetrahedron, 2004, 60, 10943-10948.


Nanopalladium particles supported on a amphiphilic polystyrene-poly(ethylene glycol) resin catalyzed hydrogenation of olefins and hydrodechlorination of chloroarenes under aqueous conditions.
R. Nakao, H. Rhee, Y. Uozumi, Org. Lett., 2005, 7, 163-165.


Selective hydrogenation conditions of olefin, benzyl ether and acetylene functionalities in the presence of TBDMS or TES ether have been developed.
H. Sajiki, T. Ikawa, K. Hattori, K. Hirota, Chem. Commun., 2003, 654-655.


Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (400) has been found to be a superior solvent over ionic liquids by severalfold in promoting the hydrogenation of various functional groups using Adams' catalyst. Both the catalyst and PEG were recycled efficiently over 10 runs without loss of activity, and without substrate cross contamination.
S. Chandrasekhar, S. Y. Prakash, C. L. Rao, J. Org. Chem., 2006, 71, 2196-2199.


Ruthenium complexes of rigid diphosphane ligands with large dihedral angles are highly efficient catalysts for the asymmetric hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids.
X. Cheng, Q. Zhang, J.-H. Xie, L.-X. Wang, Q.-L. Zhou, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2005, 44, 1118-1121.


A highly efficient iridium-catalyzed hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids in the presence of chiral spiro-phosphino-oxazoline ligands affords α-substituted chiral carboxylic acids in exceptionally high enantioselectivities and reactivities.
S. Li, S.-F. Zhu, C.-M. Zhang, S. Song, Q.-L. Zhou, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 8584-8585.


A chiral bisphosphine-thiourea ligand was applied in the highly enantioselective hydrogenation of β,β-disubstituted nitroalkenes. The thiourea group of the ligand takes on an important role in this catalytic system as a H-bond donor.
Q. Zhao, S. Li, K. Huang, R. Wang, X. Zhang, Org. Lett., 2013, 15, 4014-4017.


Imines and secondary amines were synthesized selectively by a Pd-catalyzed one-pot reaction of benzyl alcohols with primary amines. The reactions did not require any additives and were effective for a wide range of alcohols and amines.
M. S. Kwon, S. Kim, S. Park, W. Bosco, R. K. Chidrala, J. Park, J. Org. Chem., 2009, 74, 2877-2879.


A benzenedithiolate Rh(III) complex [TpMe2Rh(o-S2C6H4)(MeCN)], which can heterolytically activate H2, catalyzes hydrogenation of imines under ambient temperature and pressure with high chemoselectivity.
Y. Misumi, H. Seino, Y. Mizobe, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2009, 131, 14636-14637.


Cooperative catalysis of an Ir(III)-diamine complex and a chiral phosphoric acid or its conjugate base enables a direct reductive amination of a wide range of ketones.
C. Li, B. Villa-Marcos, J. Xiao, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2009, 131, 6967-6969.


A highly enantioselective iridium-catalyzed hydrogenation of cyclic enamines is efficient method for the synthesis of optically active cyclic tertiary amines including natural product crispine A.
G.-H. Hou, J.-H. Xie, P.-C. Yan, Q.-L. Zhou, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 131, 1366-1367.


A rhodium-catalyzed methylenation-hydrogenation cascade process allows the homologation of carbonyl compounds to alkanes in high yields.
H. Lebel, C. Ladjel, J. Org. Chem., 2005, 70, 10159-10161.


A heterogeneous platinum catalyst efficiently mediates the reductive etherification of ketones at ambient hydrogen pressure. In this transformation, water is released as the only by-product, and this is trapped with molecular sieves.
L. J. Gooßen, C. Linder, Synlett, 2006, 3489-3491.


A magnetically separable palladium catalyst is highly active and selective for epoxide hydrogenolysis at room temperature under 1 atm H2 and can be recycled without loss of activity. The catalyst was synthesized simply through a sol-gel process incorporating palladium nanoparticles and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in aluminum oxyhydroxide matrix.
M. S. Kwon, I. S. Park, J. S. Jang, J. S. Lee, J. Park, Org. Lett., 2007, 9, 3417-3419.


Exposure of aldehydes or α-ketoesters to acetylene and hydrogen gas at ambient temperature and pressure in the presence of a cationic rhodium catalysts provides the products of a formal carbonyl Z-butadienylation. These multicomponent couplings represent the first use of acetylene gas in metal-catalyzed reductive C-C bond formation.
J. R. Kong, M. J. Krische, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2006, 128, 16040-16041.


Various enantiomerically pure α-hydroxy esters were synthesized by a Ru-Cn-Tunephos-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of α-keto esters. High enantiomeric excess has been achieved for both α-aryl and α-alkyl substituted α-keto esters.
C.-J. Wang, X. Sun, X. Zhang, Synlett, 2006, 1169-1172.


An iridium-catalyzed, hydrogen-mediated reductive C-C bond formation of alkynes in the presence of α-ketoesters affords β,γ-unsaturated α-hydroxyesters in excellent yield, with complete control of olefin geometry and, in most cases, with excellent regiocontrol.
M.-Y. Ngai, A. Barchuk, M. J. Krische, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 280-281.


A novel enantioselective synthesis of α-amino acids has been developed, which is broad in scope, simple in application, and advantageous for many α-amino acids of interest in chemistry, biology, medicine.
E. J. Corey, J. O. Link, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1992, 114, 1906-1908.


Exposure of various N-arylsulfonyl aldimines to 2-butyne and hydrogen at ambient pressure in the presence of a cationic iridium(I) catalyst modified by BIPHEP provides reductive coupling products, allylic amines, in good yields as single geometrical isomers. Nonsymmetric alkynes couple under standard conditions with high levels of regioselection.
A. Barchuk, M.-Y. Ngai, M. J. Krische, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 8432-8433.


Using an iridium catalyst modified by (R)-Cl,MeO-BIPHEP, the hydrogenating of alkynes in the presence of N-arylsulfonyl imines delivers the corresponding allylic amines in highly optically enriched form. This protocol circumvents the use of preformed vinyl metal reagents and is applicable to aromatic, heteroaromatic, and aliphatic N-arylsulfonyl aldimines.
M.-Y. Ngai, A. Barchuk, M. J. Krische, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 12644-12645.


Exposure of aromatic and aliphatic N-arylsulfonyl aldimines to equal volumes of acetylene and hydrogen gas at 45°C and ambient pressure in the presence of chirally modified cationic rhodium catalysts provides (Z)-dienyl allylic amines in highly optically enriched form and as single geometrical isomers.
E. Skucas, J. R. Kong, M. J. Krische, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 7242-7243.


Catalytic hydrogenation of 1,3-enynes in the presence of ethyl glyoxalate at ambient pressure and temperature using a rhodium catalyst modified by (R)-(3,5-tBu-4-MeOPh)-MeO-BIPHEP results in highly regio- and enantioselective reductive coupling to furnish the corresponding α-hydroxy esters.
Y.-T. Hong, C.-W. Cho, E. Skucas, M. J. Krische, Org. Lett., 2007, 9, 3745-3748.


Highly enantioselective direct catalytic reductive couplings of 1,3-enynes to activated ketones such as ethyl pyruvate have been achieved by using chirally modified cationic rhodium catalysts in the presence of hydrogen to afford dienylated α-hydroxy esters with exceptional levels of regio- and enantiocontrol.
J.-R. Kong, M.-Y. Ngai, M. J. Krische, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2006, 128, 718-719.


A cobalt-rhodium heterobimetallic nanoparticle-catalyzed reductive cyclization of 2-(2-nitroaryl)acetonitriles to indoles proceeds without any additives under mild conditions. The catalytic can be reused more than ten times without loss of catalytic activity.
I. Choi, H. Chung, J. W. Park, Y. K. Chung, Org. Lett., 2016, 18, 5456-5459.