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Further Information

Related Reactions
Gewald Reaction
Synthesis of indoles

Fischer Indole Synthesis

The conversion of aryl hydrazones to indoles; requires elevated temperatures and the addition of Brřnsted or Lewis acids. Some interesting enhancements have been published recently; for example a milder conversion when N-trifluoroacetyl enehydrazines are used as substrates. (abstract).

Mechanism of the Fischer Indole Synthesis


Recent Literature

Aryl Hydrazide beyond as Surrogate of Aryl Hydrazine in the Fischer Indolization: The Synthesis of N-Cbz-indoles, N-Cbz-carbazoles, and N,N'-Bis-Cbz-pyrrolo[2,3-f]indoles
I.-K. Park, S.-E. Suh, B.-Y. Lim, C.-G. Cho, Org. Lett., 2009, 11, 5454-5456.

Fischer Indole Synthesis in Low Melting Mixtures
S. Gore, S. Baskaran, B. König, Org. Lett., 2012, 14, 4568-4571.

From Alcohols to Indoles: A Tandem Ru Catalyzed Hydrogen-Transfer Fischer Indole Synthesis
A. Porcheddu, M. G. Mura, L. De Luca, M. Pizzetti, M. Taddei, Org. Lett., 2012, 14, 6112-6115.

Efficient Preparation of Polyfunctional Indoles via a Zinc Organometallic Variation of the Fischer Indole Synthesis
Z..-G. Zhang, B. A. Haag, J.-S. Li, P. Knochel, Synthesis, 2011, 23-29.

A Palladium-Catalyzed Strategy for the Preparation of Indoles: A Novel Entry into the Fischer Indole Synthesis
S. Wagaw, B. H. Yang, S. L. Buchwald, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1998, 120, 6621-6622.

The Benzyne Fischer-Indole Reaction
D. McAusland, S. Seo, D. G. Pintori, J. Finlayson, M. F. Greaney, Org. Lett., 2011, 13, 3667-3669.

Thermal cyclization of N-trifluoracetyl enehydrazines under mild conditions: A novel entry into the Fischer indole synthesis
O. Miyata, Y. Kimura, K. Muroya, H. Hiramatsu, T. Naito, Tetrahedron Lett., 1999, 40, 3601-3604.