palladium-catalyzed C-C coupling between aryl halides or vinyl halides
and activated alkenes in the presence of a base is referred as the "Heck
Reaction". Recent developments in the catalysts and reaction conditions
have resulted in a much broader range of donors and acceptors being
amenable to the Heck Reaction.
One of the
benefits of the Heck Reaction is its outstanding trans
Mechanism of the Heck Reaction
Trifunctional N,N,O-terdentate amido/pyridyl carboxylate Pd(II) complexes
were highly active and stable phosphine-free catalysts for Heck and
room-temperature Suzuki reactions with high turnover numbers.
M. L. Kantam, P. Srinivas, J. Yadav, P. R. Likhar, S. Bhargava, J. Org. Chem., 2009,
New N-Heterocyclic Carbene Palladium Complex/Ionic Liquid Matrix Immobilized
on Silica: Application as Recoverable Catalyst for the Heck Reaction
B. Karimi, D. Enders, Org. Lett., 2006,
Pd(quinoline-8-carboxylate)2 as a Low-Priced,
Phosphine-Free Catalyst for Heck and Suzuki Reactions
X. Cui, J. Li, Z.-P. Zhang, Y. Fu, L. Liu, Q.-X. Guo, J. Org. Chem., 2007,
Triethanolamine as an Efficient and Reusable Base, Ligand and Reaction
Medium for Phosphane-Free Palladium-Catalyzed Heck Reactions
H. J. Li, L. Wang, Eur. J. Org. Chem., 2006,
An Efficient and General Method for the Heck and Buchwald-Hartwig Coupling
Reactions of Aryl Chlorides
D.-H. Lee, A. Taher, S. Hossain, M.-J. Jin, Org. Lett., 2011,
Palladium-Catalyzed Heck Reaction of Aryl Chlorides under Mild Conditions
Promoted by Organic Ionic Bases
H.-J. Xu, Y.-Q. Zhao, X.-F. Zhou, J. Org. Chem., 2011,
Efficient Aqueous-Phase Heck Reaction Catalyzed by a Robust Hydrophilic
Pyridine-Bridged Bisbenzimidazolylidene-Palladium Pincer Complex
Z. Wang, X. Feng, W. Fang, T. Tu, Synlett, 2011,
An efficient and simple protocol for phosphine-free Heck reactions in water in
the presence of a Pd(L-proline)2 complex as the catalyst under
controlled microwave irradiation conditions is versatile and provides excellent
yields of products in short reaction times. The reaction system minimizes costs,
operational hazards and environmental pollution.
B. K. Allam, K. N. Singh, Synthesis, 2011,
Heck Couplings at Room Temperature in Nanometer Aqueous Micelles
B. H. Lipshutz, B. R. Taft, Org. Lett., 2008,
Efficient Aqueous-Phase Heck and Suzuki Couplings of Aryl Bromides Using
Tri(4,6-dimethyl-3- sulfonatophenyl)phosphine Trisodium Salt (TXPTS)
L. R. Moore, K. H. Shaughnessy, Org. Lett., 2004, 6,
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a Reusable Solvent Medium for Organic
Synthesis. Application in the Heck Reaction S. Chandrasekhar, C. Narsihmulu, S. S. Sultana, N. R. Reddy, Org. Lett., 2002, 4, 4399-4401.
Functionalized Ionic Liquid as an Efficient and Recyclable Reaction Medium
for Phosphine-Free Palladium-Catalyzed Heck Reaction
L. Zhou, L. Wang,
Synthesis, 2006, 2649-2652.
Brønsted Guanidine Acid-Base Ionic Liquids: Novel Reaction Media for the
Palladium-Catalyzed Heck Reaction
S. Li, Y. Lin, H. Xie, S. Zhang, J. Xu, Org. Lett., 2006, 8, 391-394.
Practical Heck-Mizoroki Coupling Protocol for Challenging Substrates
Mediated by an N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Ligated Palladacycle
E. A. B. Kantchev, G.-R. Peh, C. Zhang, J. Y. Ying, Org. Lett.,
A Sustainable Procedure Combining the Advantages of Both Homogeneous and
Heterogeneous Catalysis for the Heck-Matsuda Reaction
C. Rossy, E. Fouquet, F.-X. Felpin, Synthesis, 2012,
Operationally Simple and Highly (E)-Styrenyl-Selective Heck Reactions
of Electronically Nonbiased Olefins
E. W. Werner, M. S. Sigman, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011,
Pd-mBDPP-Catalyzed Regioselective Internal Arylation of Electron-Rich
Olefins by Aryl Halides
S. Liu, N. Berry, N. Thomson, A. Pettman, Z. Hyder, J. Mo, J. Xiao, J. Org. Chem., 2006, 71, 7467-7470.
Regioselective Heck Vinylation of Electron-Rich Olefins with Vinyl Halides:
Is the Neutral Pathway in Operation?
M. McConville, O. Saidi, J. Blacker, J. Xiao, J. Org. Chem., 2009,
The Heck Reaction of Electron-Rich Olefins with Regiocontrol by
J. Mo, J. Xiao, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2006, 45, 4152-4157.
Palladium-Tetraphosphine Complex Catalysed Heck Reaction of Vinyl Bromides
with Alkenes: A Powerful Access to Conjugated Dienes
M. Lemhadri, A. Battace, F. Berthiol, T. Zair, H. Doucet, M. Santelli, Synthesis, 2008,
Heck Coupling with Nonactivated Alkenyl Tosylates and Phosphates: Examples
of Effective 1,2-Migrations of the Alkenyl Palladium(II) Intermediates
A. L. Hansen, J.-P. Ebran, M. Ahlquist, P.-O. Norrby, T. Skydstrup, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2006, 45, 3349-3353.
A New Route to the Synthesis of (E)- and (Z)-2-Alkene-4-ynoates and Nitriles from
vic-Diiodo-(E)-alkenes Catalyzed by Pd(0) Nanoparticles in Water
B. C. Ranu, K. Chattopadhyay, Org. Lett., 2007,
Synthesis of 2-Vinylic Indoles and Derivatives via a Pd-Catalyzed Tandem
A. Fayol, Y.-Q. Fang, M. Lautens, Org. Lett., 2006, 8, 4203-4206.
Heck Vinylations Using Vinyl Sulfide, Vinyl Sulfoxide, Vinyl Sulfone, or
Vinyl Sulfonate Derivatives and Aryl Bromides Catalyzed by a Palladium Complex
Derived from a Tetraphosphine
A. Battace, T. Zair, H. Doucet, M. Santelli,
Synthesis, 2006, 3495-3505.
Direct Acylation of Aryl Bromides with Aldehydes by Palladium Catalysis
J. Ruan, O. Saidi, J. A. Iggo, J. Xiao, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008,