This coupling of terminal alkynes with aryl or vinyl halides is performed with a palladium catalyst, a copper(I) cocatalyst, and an amine base. Typically, the reaction requires anhydrous and anaerobic conditions, but newer procedures have been developed where these restrictions are not important.
Mechanism of the Sonogashira Coupling
The First Applications of Carbene Ligands in Cross-Couplings of Alkyl Electrophiles: Sonogashira Reactions of Unactivated Alkyl Bromides and Iodides
M. Eckhardt, G. C. Fu, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2003, 125, 13642-13643.
Copper- and Ligand-Free Sonogashira Reaction Catalyzed by Pd(0) Nanoparticles at Ambient Conditions under Ultrasound Irradiation
A. R. Gholap, K. Venkatesan, R. Pasricha, T. Daniel, R. J. Lahoti, K. V. Srinivasan, J. Org. Chem., 2005, 70, 4869-4872.
Efficient Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling of Aryl Chlorides and Tosylates with Terminal Alkynes: Use of a Copper Cocatalyst Inhibits the Reaction
D. Gelman, S. L. Buchwald, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2003, 42, 5993-5996.
One-Pot Synthesis of Diarylalkynes Using Palladium-Catalyzed Sonogashira Reaction and Decarboxylative Coupling of sp Carbon and sp2 Carbon
J. Moon, M. Jeong, H. Nam, J. Ju, J. H. Moon, H. M. Jung, S. Lee, Org. Lett., 2008, 10, 945-948.
Investigation of an Efficient Palladium-Catalyzed C(sp)-C(sp) Cross-Coupling Reaction Using Phosphine-Olefin Ligand: Application and Mechanistic Aspects
W. Shi, Y. Luo, X. Luo, L. Chao, H. Zhang, J. Wang, A. Lei, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 14713-14720.
General, Robust, and Stereocomplementary Preparation of β-Ketoester Enol Tosylates as Cross-Coupling Partners Utilizing TsCl-N-Methylimidazole Agents
H. Nakatsuji, K. Ueno, T. Misaki, Y. Tanabe, Org. Lett., 2008, 10, 2131-2134.
Single-Isomer Tetrasubstituted Olefins from Regioselective and Stereospecific Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling of β-Chloro-α-iodo-α,β-unsaturated Esters
A. B. Lemay, K. S. Vulic, W. W. Ogilvie, J. Org. Chem., 2006, 71, 3615-3618.
Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylative Sonogashira Coupling of Aryl Bromides Using Near Stoichiometric Carbon Monoxide
K. T. Neumann, S. R. Laursen, A. T. Lindhardt, B. Bang-Andersen, T. Skrydstrup, Org. Lett., 2014, 16, 2216-2219.
The coupling of acid chlorides with terminal alkynes using one equivalent of triethylamine under Sonogashira conditions followed by subsequent addition of amines or amidinium salts to the intermediate alkynones allows a straightforward access to enaminones and pyrimidines under mild conditions and in excellent yields.
A. S. Karpov, T. J. J. Müller, Synthesis, 2003, 2815-2826.