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Synthesis of aryl ethers

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Chan-Lam Coupling


Ullmann Coupling


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Self-assembled octanuclear copper clusters catalyzed the coupling of aryl iodides with alcohols under mild conditions. Reactions involving low catalyst loadings (0.4%) and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol were typically complete in 4-8 h at 110C using an oil bath or 1-3 h with microwave heating.
G. F. Manbeck, A. J. Lipman, R. A. Stockland, A. L. Freidl, A. F. Hasler, J. J. Stone, I. A. Guzei, J. Org. Chem., 2005, 70, 244-250.


The use of 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Me4Phen) as a ligand improves the Cu-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of aryl iodides and bromides with primary and secondary aliphatic, benzylic, allylic, and propargylic alcohols. The relatively mild conditions, tolerate a wide array of functional groups on both the electrophilic and nucleophilic coupling partners.
R. A. Altman, A. Shafir, P. A. Lichtor, S. L. Buchwald, J. Org. Chem., 2008, 73, 284-286.


In an efficient and mild copper-catalyzed ether formation from aryl halides and aliphatic alcohols, the key to a successful coupling is the use of lithium alkoxide, directly or in situ generated by lithium tert-butoxide, and the corresponding alcohol as solvent.
J. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Chan, M. L. Ronk, R. D. Larsen, M. M. Faul, Synlett, 2011, 1419-1422.


Ullmann-type coupling reactions of aryl iodides and aliphatic alcohols occur at 110 C with N,N-dimethylglycine as the ligand, giving aryl alkyl ethers in high yields.
H. Zhang, D. Ma, W. Cao, Synlett, 2007, 243-246.


A simple and mild coupling method of aryl iodides and aliphatic alcohols, which does not require alkoxide bases, can be performed in neat alcohol or toluene as solvent. An optically active benzylic alcohol underwent the reaction with complete retention of configuration.
M. Wolter, G. Nordmann, G. E. Job, S. L. Buchwald, Org. Lett., 2002, 4, 973-976.


Palladium-catalzyed reactions of aryl halides including activated, nonactivated, and (hetero)aryl bromides as well as aryl chlorides with primary alcohols gave the corresponding alkyl aryl ethers in high yield in the presence of a bulky di-1-adamantyl-substituted bipyrazolylphosphine ligand. Functionalizations of primary alcohols in the presence of secondary and tertiary alcohols proceed with excellent selectivity.
S. Gowrisankar, A. G. Sergeev, P. Anbarasan, A. Spannenberg, H. Neumann, M. Beller, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132, 11592-11598.


A general Pd-catalyzed coupling of methanol with (hetero)aryl halides proceeds under mild conditions with a wide range of aryl and heteroaryl halides to give methyl aryl ethers in high yield.
C. W. Cheung, S. L. Buchwald, Org. Lett., 2013, 15, 3966-3969.


A one-pot method for the preparation of alkyl aryl ethers from aryl halides and the preparation of substituted benzofurans via a Pd-catalyzed phenol formation/cyclization protocol starting from 2-chloroaryl alkynes are described.
K. W. Anderson, T. Ikawa, R. E. Tundel, S. L. Buchwald, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2006, 128, 10694-10695.


A palladium-catalyzed synthesis of aryl tert-butyl ethers from a variety of unactivated aryl bromides or chlorides is described. The ether products, which are precursors to phenols, are obtained in very good yield in the presence of air-stable dialkylphosphinobiphenyl ligands.
C. A. Parrish, S. L. Buchwald, J. Org. Chem, 2001, 66, 2498-2500.