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Synthesis of imines

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A mild three-component reaction of aromatic aldehydes, alkyl bromides, and aqueous ammonia as the nitrogen source gives imines in very good yields. The reaction conditions are compatible with a range of functional groups. The reaction of aldehydes and aqueous ammonia with epoxides leads to imines bearing a vicinal hydroxyl group regioselectively.
J.-M. Huang, J.-F. Zhang, Y. Dong, W. Gong, J. Org. Chem., 2011, 76, 3511-3514.


Neat non-volatile amines react efficiently with various aromatic aldehydes in the absence of any catalyst or solvent, to give imines after a reaction time of eight minutes under microwave irradiation. 1,3-dimethylurea dispersed on montmorillonite K10 is used as an methylamine precursor.
L. Paquin, J. Hamelin, F. Texier-Boullet, Synthesis, 2006, 1652-1656.


Pyrrolidine as an organocatalyst enables a general and efficient biomimetic method for the synthesis of aldimines from aldehydes and compounds bearing an amino group. This nucleophilic catalysis proceeds via iminium activation with outstanding yields in the absence of acids and metals under simple conditions. The method has been applied to the synthesis of N-sulfinyl, N-sulfonyl imines, N-phosphinoyl, N-alkyl, and N-aryl imines.
S. Morales, F. G. Guijarro, J. L. G. Ruano, M. B. Cid, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 1082-1089.


The reaction of an arylaldehyde and a sulfonylisocyanate in a solvent or in neat form under catalyst- and additive-free conditions gives the desired N-sulfonylimine with the release of carbon dioxide. The method offers unique clean efficiency, convenience, and scalability, although it was reported to fail half a century ago.
D. Huang, X. Wang, X. Wang, W. Chen, X. Wang, Y. Hu, Org. Lett., 2016, 18, 604-607.


Tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)borate [B(OCH2CF3)3] is a mild and general reagent for condensation of amides or amines with carbonyl compounds providing N-Sulfinyl, N-toluenesulfonyl, N-(dimethylamino)sulfamoyl, N-diphenylphosphinoyl, N-(α-methylbenzyl), and N-(4-methoxyphenyl) aldimines at room temperature. The reactions are operationally simple, and the products are obtained without special workup or isolation procedures.
J. T. Reeves, M. D. Visco, M. A. Marsini, N. Grinberg, C. A. Busacca, A. E. Mattson, C. H. Senanayake, Org. Lett., 2015, 17, 2442-2445.


The use of low loadings of a silver NHC catalysts enables a mild, selective oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or carboxylic acids in the presence of BnMe3NOH or KOH under dry air in excellent yield. The catalytic system can also be used for a one-pot synthesis of imines in excellent yield.
L. Han, P. Xing, B. Jiang, Org. Lett., 2014, 16, 3428-3431.


Manganese dioxide is employed as an in situ oxidant for the one-pot conversion of alcohols into imines. In combination with polymer-supported cyanoborohydride (PSCBH), a one-pot oxidation-imine formation-reduction sequence enables alcohols to be converted directly into both secondary and tertiary amines.
L. Blackburn, R. J. K. Taylor, Org. Lett., 2001, 3, 1637-1639.


Imines and secondary amines were synthesized selectively by a Pd-catalyzed one-pot reaction of benzyl alcohols with primary amines. The reactions did not require any additives and were effective for a wide range of alcohols and amines.
M. S. Kwon, S. Kim, S. Park, W. Bosco, R. K. Chidrala, J. Park, J. Org. Chem., 2009, 74, 2877-2879.


A modular aerobic oxidation of amines to imines has been achieved using an ortho-naphthoquinone (o-NQ) catalyst. Whereas the cooperative catalyst system of o-NQ and Cu(OAc)2 provided homocoupled imines from benzylamines, the presence of TFA helped the formation of cross-coupled imines in excellent yields. The oxidation of secondary amines to imines or ketimines is facilitated with the help of Ag2CO3 as cocatalyst.
Y. Goriya, H. Y. Kim, K. Oh, Org. Lett., 2016, 18, 5174-5177.


Iron-catalyzed aerobic oxidative reactions of primary amines, secondary amines, benzylamines with anilines, and alcohols with amines in the presence of air as the economic and safe oxidant, provide several direct, practical, and greener approaches for the preparation of useful imines.
E. Zhang, H. Tian, S. Xu, X. Yu, Q. Xu, Org. Lett., 2013, 15, 2704-2707.


A base-mediated protocol enables the synthesis of imines and amines from N-phenylureas and alcohols in good yields under air. This protocol is as an efficient alternative to conventional methods for the synthesis of imines and amines.
D. K. T. Yadav, B. M. Bhanage, Synlett, 2014, 25, 1611-1615.


An intermolecular reductive Schiff base formation from nitroarenes and benzaldehydes to yield diarylimines is carried out in the presence of iron powder and dilute acid. This process tolerates various functional groups and often proceeds quantitatively with no need for purification.
A. L. Korich, T. S. Hughes, Synlett, 2007, 2602-2604.


The use of photosensitive C70 for the catalytic oxidation of benzylamines to the corresponding imines enables faster reaction rates, lower catalyst loadings, and clean reactions with simple workup without chromatography, compared to C60 or other commonly used photosensitizers such as tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP). Singlet oxygen (1O2) and the superoxide radical anion (O2•–) act as important reactive species in this oxidation.
R. Kumar, E. H. Gleißner, E. G. V. Tiu, Y. Yamakoshi, Org. Lett., 2016, 18, 184-187.


By employing Pd(OAc)2 and (t-Bu)2PNP(i-BuNCH2CH2)3N as ligand, a broad range of aryl bromides and chlorides possessing base-sensitive substituents provide coupling products with bulky aryl amines in good to excellent yields. An efficient coupling of vinyl bromides with a variety of amines produces imines and enamines at room temperature.
Ch. V. Reddy, J. V. Kingston, J. G. Verkade, J. Org. Chem., 2008, 73, 3047-3062.


A high-yielding, asymmetric synthesis of novel 4-formyl-1-(2- and 3-haloalkyl)azetidin-2-ones was developed as valuable starting materials for the synthesis of different enantiomerically enriched bicyclic azetidin-2-ones, such as piperazine, morpholine, and 1,4-diazepane annulated β-lactam derivatives.
W. Van Brabandt, M. Vanwalleghem, M. D'hooghe, N. De Kimpe, J. Org. Chem., 2006, 71, 7083-7086.


A novel Au(I)-precatalyst is applied to intermolecular alkyne hydroamination. DFT calculations revealed the cyclopropenium counterion of this Au(I)-precatalyst imparts stability through H-bonding and other noncovalent interactions.
R. Mir, T. Dudding, J. Org. Chem., 2016, 81, 2675-2679.


Readily available and stable titanocene-alkyne complexes can be used for the hydroamination of internal and terminal alkynes. The reactions of terminal alkynes with aliphatic amines proceed highly selectively to give the corresponding primary anti-Markovnikov functionalized imines in good to excellent yields.
A. Tillack, I. G. Castro, C. G. Hartung, M. Beller, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2002, 41, 2541-2543.


Use of the heterogeneous catalyst amberlist-15 A enables an efficient synthesis of N-(tert-butylsulfinyl)imines under microwave irradiation. Amberlist-15 is convenient to handle, inexpensive, safe to use and quickly separable from the reaction mixture. This method offers a number of advantages including operational simplicity, high yield of products, and broad substrate scope.
C. Sanaboina, S. Jana, L. Eppakayala, Synlett, 2014, 25, 1006-1008.


Microwave-promoted condensation of carbonyl compounds with (R)-2-methylpropane-2-sulfinamide under solvent-free conditions in the presence of Ti(OEt)4 enables a simple, environmentally friendly synthesis of optically pure N-(tert-butylsulfinyl)imines. Sulfinyl aldimines can be prepared with excellent yields and purities in only 10 min, whereas the reaction time for the preparation of ketimines has been extended to 1 h.
J. F. Collados, E. Toledano, D. Guijarro, M. Yus, J. Org. Chem., 2012, 77, 5744-5750.


A number of new reactions of IBX with heteroatom-containing substrates were discovered and their utility was demonstrated. IBX was used for the generation of imines from secondary amines in notably high yields, for the oxidative aromatization of nitrogen heterocycles and for the cleavage of dithianes.
K. C. Nicolaou, C. J. N. Mathison, T. Montagnon, Angew. Chem., 2003, 115, 4211-4216.


[RuCl2(CO)3]2/dppp is a highly effective catalyst system for the intramolecular oxidative amination of various aminoalkenes in presence of K2CO3 and allyl acetate in N-methylpiperidine to give the corresponding cyclic imines and indoles in excellent yields.
T. Kondo, T. Okada, T.-A. Mitsudo, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2002, 124, 186-187.


A transition-metal-free oxidative C-C bond cleavage process for a broad range of ester and dicarbonyl compounds involves carbanion addition to nitrosobenzene and proceeds via fragmentation of a previously unobserved oxazetidin-4-one heterocycle.
J. N. Payette, H. Yamamoto, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 12276-12278.


A highly regioselective hydroamination of unsymmetrical electron-poor and electron-rich alkynes with anilines is catalyzed by Au(I) under mild conditions. In addition, applications toward indole syntheses are presented including an example of a one-pot synthesis from a nonfunctionalized aniline.
S. Kramer, K. Dooleweerdt, A. T. Lindhardt, M. Rottländer, T. Skrydstrup, Org. Lett., 2009, 11, 4208-4211.


The reaction of aldehydes, amines, and TMSCN in the presence of 2-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) and tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) afforded α-iminonitriles in good to excellent yields under mild conditions. The presence of TBAB is essential for this transformation.
P. Fontaine, A. Chiaroni, G. Masson, J. Zhu, Org. Lett., 2008, 10, 1509-1512.