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Synthesis of lactams and related compounds

Synthesis of saturated lactams

α-Lactams
(Aziridinones)

β-Lactams

γ-Lactams

δ-Lactams
 


Name Reactions


Biginelli Reaction


Recent Literature


An oxidative copper-catalyzed arylation of various ring-size lactams with arylboronic acids gives N-arylated products in good yield without any additional bases, ligands, or additives.
T. Bathini, V. S. Rawat, B. Sreedhar, Synlett, 2015, 26, 1348-1351.


A quick, efficient, one-pot, BF3·OEt2-mediated reaction of various substituted arenes with azido alkanoic acid chlorides affords substituted N-aryl lactams in good to excellent yields at room temperature.
D. Caturvedi, A. K. Chaturvedi, N. Mishra, V. Mishra, Synlett, 2012, 23, 2627-2630.


The reaction of amide and thioamide dianions with epibromohydrin resulted in regioselective formation of 5-(hydroxy­methyl)pyrrolidin-2-ones (pyroglutaminols) and -thiones.
I. Freifeld, H. Armbrust, P. Langer, Synthesis, 2006, 1807-1808.


An intramolecular vinylation of various iodoenamides using CuI as the catalyst and N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine as the ligand led to five- to seven-membered lactams in moderate to excellent yields.
T. Hu, C. Li, Org. Lett., 2005, 7, 2035-2038.


Regioselective ring closing ene-yne metathesis provided an efficient access to different substituted 1-benzazepine scaffolds. Five- and six-membered lactams were efficiently prepared by ring-closing metathesis affording highly functionalizable compounds.
E. Benedetti, M. Lomazzi, F. Tibiletti, J.-P. Goddard, L. Fensterbank, M. Malacria, G. Palmisano, A. Penoni, Synthesis, 2012, 44, 3523-3533.


Optically enriched N-fused bicyclic amides and small- and medium-ring unsaturated cyclic amines can be synthesized in up to 98% ee through Mo-catalyzed desymmetrization of readily available achiral polyene substrates. The effects of catalyst structure, olefin substitution, positioning of Lewis basic functional groups and ring size are examined and discussed in detail.
E. S. Sattely, G. Alexander Cortez, D. C. Moebius, R. R. Schrock, A. H. Hoveyda, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2005, 127, 8526-8533.


ROM-RCM of cyclobutenylmethylamines having an alkyne moiety in a tether afforded isoquinoline derivatives in good yields using a second-generation Grubbs catalyst.
M. Mori, H. Wakamatsu, K. Tonogaki, R. Fujita, T. Kitamura, Y. Sato, J. Org. Chem., 2005, 70, 1066-1069.


Organic azides are easily and chemoselectively reduced to the corresponding amines by reaction with dichloroindium hydride under very mild conditions. γ-Azidonitriles give pyrrolidin-2-imines in an outstanding cyclization.
L. Benati, G. Bencivenni, R. Leardini, D. Nanni, M. Minozzi, P. Spagnolo, R. Scialpi, G. Zanardi, Org. Lett., 2006, 8, 2499-2502.


After NHC-catalyzed activation of acetic esters, the catalytically generated triazolium enolate intermediates serve as two-carbon nucleophiles that undergo highly enantioselective reactions with enones and α,β-unsaturated imines to give α-unsubstituted δ-lactones and lactams, respectively.
S. Chen, L. Hao, Y. Zhang, B. Tiwari, Y. R. Chi, Org. Lett., 2013, 15, 5822-5825.

New Routes to Heterocycles
Preparation of Cyclic Amines

C-N Ring-forming Reactions by Transition Metal-catalyzed Intramolecular Alkene Hydroamination