The Zakarian Synthesis of (+)-Pinnatoxin A
(+)-Pinnatoxin A (3), isolated from the shellfish Pinna muricata, is thought to be a calcium channel activator. A key transformation in the synthesis of 3 reported (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 3774. DOI: 10.1021/ja800435j) by Armen Zakarian, now at the University of California, Santa Barbara, was the diastereoselective Claisen rearrangement of 1 to 2.
The alcohol portion of ester 1 was derived from the aldehyde 4, prepared from D-ribose. The absolute configuration of the secondary allylic alcohol was established by chiral amino alcohol catalyzed addition of diethyl zinc to the unsaturated aldehyde 5.
The acid portion of the ester 1 was prepared from (S)-citronellic acid, by way of the Evans imide 7. Methylation proceeded with high diasterocontrol, to give 8. Functional group manipulation provided the imide 9. Alkylation then led to 10, again with high diastereocontrol. In each case, care had to be taken in the further processing of the α-chiral acyl oxazolidinones. Direct NaBH4 reduction of 8 delivered the primary alcohol. To prepare the acid 10, the alkylated acyl oxazolidinone was hydrolyzed with alkaline hydrogen peroxide.
On exposure of the ester 1 to the enantiomerically-pure base 11, rearrangement proceeded with high diastereocontrol, to give the acid 2. This outcome suggests that deprotonation proceeded to give the single geometric form of the enolate, that was then trapped to give specifically the ketene silyl acetal 12. This elegant approach is dependent on both the ester 1 and the base 11 being enantiomerically pure.
The carbocyclic ring of pinnatoxin A (3) was assembled by intramolecular aldol condensation of the dialdehyde 11. This outcome was remarkable, in that 11 is readily epimerizable, and might also be susceptible to β-elimination. Note that the while the diol corresponding to 11 could be readily oxidized to 11 under Swern conditions, attempts to oxidize the corresponding hydroxy aldehyde were not fruitful.