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Direct ester condensation from a 1:1 mixture of carboxylic acids and alcohols catalyzed by hafnium(IV) or zirconium(IV) salts

Kazuaki Ishihara, Masaya Nakayama, Suguru Ohara and Hisashi Yamamoto

*Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, SORST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST), Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan, Email:

K. Ishihara, M. Nakayama, S. Ohara, H. Yamamoto, Tetrahedron, 2002, 58, 8179-8188.

DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4020(02)00966-3


An atom efficient esterification of equimolar amounts of carboxylic acids and alcohols could be achieved using hafnium(IV) or zirconium(IV) salts. These metal salts are highly effective as catalysts for the selective esterification of primary alcohols with carboxylic acids in the presence of secondary alcohols or aromatic alcohols.

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Key Words

hafnium(IV), zirconium(IV), direct ester condensation, esterification, chemoselective, catalysts, dehydration, Fischer esterification, thioesters

ID: J72-Y2002-380