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Tetrahaloindate(III)-Based Ionic Liquids in the Coupling Reaction of Carbon Dioxide and Epoxides To Generate Cyclic Carbonates: H-Bonding and Mechanistic Studies

Yong Jin Kim and Rajender S. Varma*

*Sustainable Technology Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, MS 443, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268, Email:

Y. J. Kim, R. S. Varma, J. Org. Chem., 2005, 70, 7882-7891.

DOI: 10.1021/jo050699x (free Supporting Information)


A series of tetrahaloindate(III)-based ionic liquids (ILs) have been produced by microwave-assisted synthesis. These ionic liquids have been examined as catalyst in the reaction of CO2 with various epoxides to give cyclic carbonates. Tetrahaloindate(III)-based ILs are found to exhibit high catalytic activities. The effects of a variety of parameters (temperature, pressure, molar ratio of propylene oxide to catalyst), the mechanism, and the significant role of H-bonding interactions in the coupling reactions are discussed.

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Key Words

Ionic liquids, cyclic carbonates, green chemistry

ID: J42-Y2005-1330