and related compounds
Hantzsch esters, which are products of the Hantzsch Dihydropyridine Synthesis, are mild reducing agents, that are often used in transfer hydrogenations of activated C=C bonds, C=O bonds in carbonyl compounds, and C=N bonds in imines. The presence of a Lewis or Brønstedt acid catalyst for further activation of the hydrogen acceptor is often required. In case of chiral catalysts, transfer hydrogenations can occur enantioselectively.
An efficient and highly enantioselective conjugate transfer hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated ketones is catalyzed by a salt made from tert-butyl valinate and a recently introduced powerful chiral phosphoric acid catalyst (TRIP).
N. J. A. Martin, B. List, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2006, 128, 13368-13369.
The use of a chiral imidazolidinone catalyst has provided a new organocatalytic strategy for the enantioselective reduction of β,β-substituted α,β-unsaturated aldehydes to generate β-stereogenic aldehydes using ethyl Hantzsch ester as the hydrogen source. In addition, an acceleration of E-Z isomerization prior to selective E-olefin reduction allows the use of geometrically impure enals in this operationally simple protocol.
S. G. Ouellet, J. B. Tuttle, D. W. C. MacMillan, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2005, 7, 32-33.
Bis-methylamido Hantzsch dihydropyridine is an effective transfer hydrogenation reagent for the reduction of α,β-unsaturated ketones. Unreacted Hantzsch amide and the bis-methylamidopyridine byproduct are effectively removed by extraction in contrast to the commonly used Hantzsch diethyl ester. The reaction is more effective for conjugated aromatic substrates than for aliphatics.
S. A. Van Arman, A. J. Zimmet, I. E. Murray, J. Org. Chem., 2016, 81, 3528-3532.
Hantzsch ester as reducing agent enables a cascade Knoevenagel condensation-reduction approach in water. Various reduced Knoevenagel adducts could be easily prepared by direct alkylation of malononitrile, ethyl 2-cyanoacetate, and 2-(4-nitrophenyl)acetonitrile, respectively.
T. He, R. Shi, Y. Gong, G. Jiang, M. Liu, S. Qian, Z. Wang, Synlett, 2016, 27, 1864-1869.
A highly enantioselective hydrogenation of enamides is catalyzed by a dual chiral-achiral acid system. By employing a substoichiometric amount of a chiral phosphoric acid and acetic acid, low catalyst loadings of the chiral catalyst were sufficient to provide excellent yield and enantioselectivity of the reduction product.
G. Li, J. C. Antilla, Org. Lett., 2009, 11, 1075-1078.
An oxidation/imine-iminium formation/reduction cascade using TEMPO-BAIB-HEH-Brønsted acid catalysis in DMPU as solvent enables a mild and atom-economical nonepimerizing chemo- and enantioselective N-alkylating procedure of amines with alcohols.
I. A. Khan, A. K. Saxena, J. Org. Chem., 2013, 78, 11656-11669.
α-Imino esters derived from aryl and alkyl keto esters could be reduced to the corresponding α-amino esters in excellent yields and in high enantiomeric excesses using 5 mol-% of a chiral phosphoric acid as catalyst, Hantzsch ester as hydride donor, and toluene as solvent.
G. Li, Y. Liang, J. C. Antilla, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 5830-5831.
A thiourea-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of various aromatic as well as aliphatic aldimines through hydrogen-bonding activation with Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridine as the hydrogen source gives the respective amines under acid- and metal-free reaction conditions.
Z. Zhang, P. R. Schreiner, Synlett, 2007, 1455-1457.
A direct reductive amination of ketones using the Hantzsch ester in the presence of S-benzyl isothiouronium chloride as a recoverable organocatalyst converts a wide range of ketones as well as aryl amines to the expected products in good yields.
Q. P. B. Nguyen, T. H. Kim, Synthesis, 2012, 44, 1977-1982.
A biomimetic direct reductive amination of ketones relies on selective imine activation by hydrogen bond formation with thiourea as hydrogen bond donor and utilizes the Hantzsch ester for transfer hydrogenation. The method allows the efficient synthesis of structurally diverse amines.
D. Menche, J. Hassfeld, J. Li, G. Menche, A. Ritter, S. Rudolph, Org. Lett., 2006, 8, 741-744.
A hydrogen-bond-catalyzed, acid- and metal-free direct reductive amination of aldehydes uses thiourea as organocatalyst and the Hantzsch ester for transfer-hydrogenation. This methods allows for the high-yielding synthesis of diverse amines.
D. Menche, F. Arikan, Synlett, 2006, 841-844.
A chemoselective activation of a secondary amide with triflic anhydride in the presence of 2-fluoropyridine enables a mild reduction using triethylsilane, a cheap and rather inert reagent. Imines can be isolated after a basic workup or readily transformed to the aldehydes following an acidic workup. The amine moiety can be accessed by addition of Hantzsch ester to the reaction mixture.
G. Pelletier, W. S. Bechara, A. B. Charette, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132, 12817-12819.
Catalyst-free debrominations and dechlorinations of aromatic α-haloketones under visible light irradiation in the presence of Hantzsch ester provide products in excellent yield and tolerate a broad spectrum of substrates.
Z. Lu, Y.-Q. Yang, Synthesis, 2019, 51, 508-515.
Acetates of benzoin derivatives can be effectively reduced using catalytic amounts of [Ru(bpy)3]Cl2 as photoredox catalyst in combination with Hantzsch ester and triethylamine as a sacrificial electron donor. This mild and operationally simple method is applicable to a broad range of substrates providing deoxygenated counterparts in good yields.
E. Speckmeier, C. Padié, K. Zeitler, Org. Lett., 2015, 17, 4818-4821.
A highly enantioselective catalytic protocol for the intramolecular reductive coupling of ketones and hydrazones furnishes cyclic syn 1,2-amino alcohol derivatives with excellent levels of diastereo- and enantioselectivity. The reaction proceeds through neutral ketyl radical intermediates generated via a concerted proton-coupled electron transfer event jointly mediated by a chiral phosphoric acid catalyst and a photoredox catalyst.
L. J. Rono, H. G. Yayla, D. Y. Wang, M. F. Armstrong, R. R. Knowles, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135, 17735-17738.
An achiral amine in combination with a catalytic amount of a chiral Brønsted acid can accomplish an aldol addition-dehydration-conjugate reduction-reductive amination with 2,6-diketones to provide cyclohexylamines as potential intermediates of pharmaceutically active compounds in good yields and excellent enantioselectivities.
J. Zhou, B. List, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 7498-7499.
A chiral phosphoric acid as the sole catalyst enables an enantioselective synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines from 2-aminochalcones via chiral phosphoric acid-catalyzed dehydrative cyclization, followed by chiral phosphoric acid-catalyzed asymmetric reduction with Hantzsch ester. Various 2-aminochalcones could be applicable to this protocol, and the desired tetrahydroquinolines were obtained in excellent yields and with excellent enantioselectivities.
D. Y. Park, S. Y. Lee, J. Jeon, C.-H. Cheon, J. Org. Chem., 2018, 83, 12486-12495.
A highly efficient gold-catalyzed tandem hydroamination/asymmetric transfer hydrogenation provides tetrahydroquinolines in excellent yields and enantioselectivities in the presence of a chiral phosphate. In this reaction, the gold catalyst acts as a π-Lewis acid in the hydroamination step and as an effective chiral Lewis acid in the asymmetric hydrogen-transfer.
Y.-L. Du, Y. Hu, Y.-F. Zhu, X.-F. Tu, Z.-Y. Han, L.-Z. Gong, J. Org. Chem., 2015, 80, 4754-4759.
Consecutive hydroamination/asymmetric transfer hydrogenation under relay catalysis of an achiral gold complex/chiral Brønsted acid binary system allows a direct transformation of 2-(2-propynyl)aniline derivatives into tetrahydroquinolines with high enantiomeric purity.
Z.-Y. Han, H. Xiao, X.-H. Chen, L.-Z. Gong, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2009, 131, 9182-9183.
An inert, rigid chiral-at-metal iridium(III) complex enables a highly efficient catalytic asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of β,β′-disubstituted nitroalkenes. The catalysis does not involve any direct metal coordination but operates exclusively through weak interactions with functional groups properly arranged in the ligand sphere of the iridium complex.
L-A. Chen, W. Xu, B. Huang, J. Ma, L. Wang, J. Xi, K. Harms, L. Gong, E. Meggers, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135, 10598-10601.
A highly efficient and highly enantioselective Hantzsch ester mediated conjugate transfer hydrogenation of β,β-disubstituted nitroolefins is catalyzed by a Jacobsen-type thiourea catalyst.
N. J. A. Martin, L. Ozores, B. List, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 8976-8977.
A highly efficient and enantioselective Hantzsch ester mediated conjugate reduction of β-nitroacrylates is catalyzed by a Jacobsen thiourea catalyst. The reaction is a key step in a new route to optically active β2-amino acids.
N. J. A. Martin, X. Chen, B. List, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 13862-13863.
An operationally simple, tin-free reductive dehalogenation system allows the reduction of activated C-X bonds in good yields with excellent functional-group tolerance and chemoselectivity over aryl and vinyl C-X bonds in the presence of the well-known visible-light-activated photoredox catalyst Ru(bpy)3Cl2 in combination with iPr2NEt and HCO2H or Hantzsch ester as the hydrogen atom donor.
J. M. R. Narayanam, J. W. Tucker, C. R. J. Stephenson, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2009, 131, 8756-8757.
A versatile and efficient access to 1H-isochromenes via a domino cycloisomerization/reduction reaction process starting from a wide range of functionalized ortho-alkynylbenzaldehydes is catalyzed by dichloro(2-pyridinecarboxylato)gold ([AuCl2(Pic)]).
E. Tomás-Mendivil, J. Starck, J.-C. Ortuno, V. Michelet, Org. Lett., 2015, 17, 6126-6129.
An efficient reductive cyclization of o-nitrocinnamoyl compounds was achieved by employing Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridine diethyl ester as a biomimetic reducing agent in the presence of catalytic palladium on carbon. This approach was successfully applied to the synthesis of substituted quinolines.
R.-G. Xing, Y.-N. Li, Q. Liu, Y.-F. Han, X. Wei, J. Li, B. Zhou, Synthesis, 2011, 2066-2072.
A Brønsted acid catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of indole derivatives with Hantzsch dihydropyridine as the hydrogen source enables an efficient synthesis of various optically active indolines with high enantioselectivities.
M. Rueping, C. Brinkmann, A. P. Antonchick, I. Atoresei, Org. Lett., 2010, 12, 4604-4607.