The Stille Coupling is a versatile C-C bond forming reaction between stannanes and halides or pseudohalides, with very few limitations on the R-groups. Well-elaborated methods allow the preparation of different products from all of the combinations of halides and stannanes depicted below. The main drawback is the toxicity of the tin compounds used, and their low polarity, which makes them poorly soluble in water. Stannanes are stable, but boronic acids and their derivatives undergo much the same chemistry in what is known as the Suzuki Coupling. Improvements in the Suzuki Coupling may soon lead to the same versatility without the drawbacks of using tin compounds.
Convenient electrophiles and stannanes:
Mechanism of the Stille Coupling
Highly chemoselective coupling of allenylstannanes with organic iodides promoted by Pd(PPh3)4/LiCl: an efficient method for the synthesis of substituted allenes
C.-W. Huang, M. Shanmugasundaram, H.-M. Chang, C.-H. Cheng, Tetrahedron, 2003, 59, 3635-3641.