Fmoc-NR2, , FMOC amino, FMOC amine, FMOC amide
T. W. Green, P. G. M. Wuts,
Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis,
Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1999, 503-507, 736-739.
|H2O:||pH < 1, 100°C||pH = 1, RT||pH = 4, RT||pH = 9, RT||pH = 12, RT||pH > 12, 100°C|
|Reduction:||H2 / Ni||H2 / Rh||Zn / HCl||Na / NH3||LiAlH4||NaBH4|
|Oxidation:||KMnO4||OsO4||CrO3 / Py||RCOOOH||I2, Br2, Cl2||MnO2/CH2Cl2|
Protection of Amino Groups
New, stable amino-protecting reagents, Boc-DMT and Fmoc-DMT, were prepared, and found to be useful for the introduction of Boc and Fmoc groups into amines. Both the reagents can protect various amines including amino acids in good yield in aqueous media.
K. Hioki, M. Kinugasa, M. Kishimoto, M. Fujiwara, S. Tani, M. Kunishima, Synthesis, 2006, 1931-1933.
Stable Fmoc-, Boc-, and Alloc-benzotriazoles react with various amino acids including unprotected serine and glutamic acid, in the presence of triethylamine at 20˚C to afford Fmoc-, Boc-, and Alloc-protected amino acids in very good yields free of dipeptide and tripeptide impurities. Fmoc-, and Alloc-Gly-Gly-OH dipeptides were prepared in excellent yields by N-acylation of glycylglycine.
T. S. Ibrahima, S. R. Tala, S. A. El-Feky, Z. K. Abdel-Samii, A. R. Katritzky, Synlett, 2011, 2013-2016.
A simple and efficient protection procedure is general and regioselective for the preparation of mono-N-Boc, N-Cbz, N-Fmoc or N-Alloc aromatic amines in high yield without affecting aliphatic amino groups and other functionalities.
V. Perron, S. Abbott, N. Moreau, D. Lee, C. Penney, B. Zacharie, Synthesis, 2009, 283-289.
Other Syntheses of Fmoc-Protected Amino Groups
Weakly basic carbon nucleophiles add efficiently to a Fmoc-protected N,O-acetal. The new reactions shows the compatibility of the Fmoc protecting group with moderately basic reaction conditions and should serve as a model for the development of more efficient syntheses of Fmoc-protected amino acids.
A. E. Hartman, C. L. Brophy, J. A. Cupp, D. K. Hodge, T. J. Peelen, J. Org. Chem., 2009, 74, 3952-3954.