Synthesis of alkylboronic acids and alkylboronates
A mild Pd-catalyzed process for the borylation of primary alkyl bromides using bis(pinacolato)diboron as a boron source tolerates a wide range of functional groups on the alkyl bromide substrate and offers complete selectivity in the presence of a secondary bromide. This approach has been extended to the use of alkyl iodides and alkyl tosylates, as well as borylation reactions employing bis(neopentyl glycolato)diboron as the boron source.
A. Joshi-Pangu, X. Ma, M. Diane, S. Iqbal, R. J. Kribs, R. Huang, C.-Y. Wang, M. R. Biscoe, J. Org. Chem., 2012, 77, 6629-6633.
Very low amounts of Manganese(II) bromide and tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA) catalyze the cross coupling of (bis)pinacolatodiboron with a wide range of alkyl halides. This method allows access to primary, secondary, and tertiary boronic esters.
T. C. Atack, S. P. Cook, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2016, 138, 6139-6142.
The use of low-cost iron(III) acetoacetate and tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA) enables a mild direct cross-coupling of alkyl halides with bis(pinacolato)diboron at room temperature. Moreover, the borylation of benzylic or allylic chlorides, tosylates, and mesylates is possible. The reactions show broad functional-group compatibility.
T. C. Atack, R. M. Lecker, S. P. Cook, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 9521-9523.
A catalyst formed in situ from NiBr2 • diglyme and a pybox ligand accomplishes Miyaura-type borylations of unactivated tertiary, secondary, and primary alkyl halides with diboron reagents to furnish alkylboronates. The method exhibits good functional-group compatibility and is regiospecific.
A. S. Dudnik, G. C. Fu, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134, 10693-10697.
An operationally simple decarboxylative borylation reaction of readily available aliphatic acid derivatives under additive-free visible-light photoredox conditions provides primary and secondary alkyl boronates or tetrafluoroborates with various functional groups. A catalytic cycle involving alkyl radical reaction with base-activated diboron species has been proposed.
D. Hu, L. Wang, P. Li, Org. Lett., 2017, 19, 2770-2773.
Cu-catalyzed formal hydroboration of terminal or 1,1-disubstituted alkenes with bis(pinacolato)diboron and methanol provides products with exceptional regiocontrol favoring the branched isomer. Subsequent photocatalytic cross-couplings using iridium and nickel cocatalysis enable a highly regioselective hydroarylation of terminal alkenes.
H. A. Kerchner, J. Montgomery, Org. Lett., 2016, 18, 5760-5763.
orylation of primary and secondary alkyl chlorides, bromides, and iodides with diboron proceeded in the presence of copper(I)/Xantphos as catalyst and a stoichiometric amount of K(O-t-Bu) as base. Menthyl halides afforded the corresponding borylation product with excellent diastereoselectivity, whereas (R)-2-bromo-5-phenylpentane gave a racemic product.
H. Ito, K. Kubota, Org. Lett., 2012, 14, 890-893.
Aliphatic, aromatic, heteroaromatic, vinyl, or allylic Grignard reagents react with pinacolborane at ambient temperature in tetrahydrofuran to afford the corresponding pinacolboronates. The initially formed dialkoxy alkylborohydride intermediate quickly eliminates hydridomagnesium bromide and affords the product boronic ester in very good yield. This reaction also can be carried out under Barbier conditions.
J. W. Clary, T. J. Rettenmaier, R. Snelling, W. Bryks, J. Banwell, W. T. Wipke, B. Singaram, J. Org. Chem., 2011, 76, 9602-9610.
Hydroboration of terminal and internal aliphatic alkenes with pinacolborane was carried out at room temperature in the presence of dppm and [Ir(cod)Cl]2 resulting in addition of the boron atom to the terminal carbon with a selectivity of more than 99%. A complex prepared from dppe and [Ir(cod)Cl]2 resulted in the best yields for vinylarenes.
Y. Yamamoto, R. Fujikawa, T. Umemoto, N. Miyaura, Tetrahedron, 2004, 60, 10695-10700.
A novel chiral iminopyridine oxazoline (IPO) ligand enables a highly regio- and enantioselective iron-catalyzed anti-Markovnikov hydroboration of 1,1-disubstituted aryl alkenes. This distinct class of reactive IPO ligands will likely be of high value for a large variety of asymmetric transformations using first-row transition metals.
J. Chen, T. Xi, Z. Lu, Org. Lett., 2014, 16, 6452-6455.
An efficient ligand-free copper-catalyzed borylation offers Markovnikov-selectivity in the reaction of bis(pinacolato)diboron with allyl arenes, while the regioselectivity is completely opposite when styrene derivatives are used as substrates.
Y. Wen, J. Xie, C. Deng, C. Li, J. Org. Chem., 2015, 80, 4142-4147.
A mild, efficient, highly regio- and enantioselective copper-catalyzed hydroboration of 1,1-diaryl substituted alkenes with bis(pinacolato)diboron provides a series of valuable β,β-diaryl substituted boronic esters with high enantiomeric purity. Moreover, this approach is also be suitable for hydroboration of α-alkyl styrenes for the synthesis of enantioenriched β,β-arylalkyl substituted boronic esters.
Z. Wang, X. He, R. Zhang, G. Zhang, G. Xu, Q. Zhang, T. Xiong, Q. Zhang, Org. Lett., 2017, 19, 3067-3070.
A very active cobalt catalyst enables a facile anti-Markovnikov hydroboration of sterically hindered terminal alkenes. Notably, these hydroboration reactions proceed in neat substrates at 23°C. With internal olefins, the cobalt catalyst provides a convenient method for hydrofunctionalization of remote C-H bonds by placing the boron substituent exclusively at the terminal positions of an alkyl chain.
J. V. Obligacion, P. J. Chirik, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135, 19107-19110.
Efficient and site selective boron-copper addition processes involving acyclic and cyclic disubstituted aryl olefins are promoted with a readily available N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex. In situ protonation of the C-Cu bond in the presence of MeOH leads to efficient catalyst turnover, constituting a net Cu-catalyzed hydroboration process.
Y. Lee, A. H. Hoveyda, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 131, 3160-3161.
Cobalt complexes of iminopyridine-oxazoline (IPO) ligands can be applied to the asymmetric hydroboration of 1,1-disubstituted aryl alkenes to afford α-alkyl-β-pinacolatoboranes with exclusive regioselectivity in high yields with up to 99.5% ee. An efficient synthesis of naproxen is described.
L. Zhang, Z. Zuo, X. Wan, Z. Huang, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 15501-15504.
A simple protocol for the borylation of alkenes with use of impregnated copper on magnetite showed a very broad scope. All type of olefins could be used with similar results. The catalyst can be magnetically removed and reused several times, showing similar activity.
R. Cano, D. J. Ramón, M. Yus, J. Org. Chem., 2010, 75, 3458-3460.
Arylboration of vinylarenes and methyl crotonate with aryl halides and bis(pinacolato)diboron by cooperative Pd/Cu catalysis gives 2-boryl-1,1-diarylethanes and α-aryl-β-boryl ester in a regioselective manner. The reaction is compatible with various functionalities and can be scaled-up to a gram scale.
K. Semba, Y. Nakao, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 7567-7570.
A convenient method for the synthesis of 1,1-diboronates from the corresponding N-tosylhydrazones is also applicable to 1-silyl-1-boron compounds. Derivatization and consecutive Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with 1,1-boronates were also explored, demonstrating the synthetic potential of 1,1-diboronates.
H. Li, X. Shangguan, Z. Zhang, S. Huang, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, Org. Lett., 2014, 16, 448-451.
(E)- and (Z)-silyl and aryl-subsituted homoallylic methanesulfonates were converted to the corresponding cis- and trans-1-silyl-2-borylcyclobutanes as well as 1-phenyl-2-borylcyclobutanes in the presence of a CuCl/dppp catalyst, bis(pinacolato)diboron, and K(O-t-Bu)in THF. Stereospecific derivatizations of the cis- and trans-borylcyclobutanes were carried out to demonstrate the utility of the borylcyclobutanes.
H. Ito, T. Toyoda, M. Sawamura, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132, 5990-5992.
Bidentate Oxazoline-substituted imidazolium salts based on [2.2]paracyclophane with planar and central chirality can be used as ligand in Cu(I)-catalyzed asymmetric β-boration of α,β-unsaturated esters, giving the desired products in high enantioselectivities and yields.
Z. Niu, J. Chen, Z. Chen, M. Ma, C. Song, Y. Ma, J. Org. Chem., 2015, 80, 602-608.
Cu[(S)-(R)-ppfa]Cl and AgNTf2 as catalyst enable an asymmetric conjugate addition of B2pin2 onto α-functionalized α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds under mild, neutral conditions in the presence of an alcohol. AgNTf2 and alcohols play crucial roles for achieving high catalytic activity and enantio- and diastereoselectivity.
J.-B. Xie, S. Lin, S. Qiao, G. Li, Org. Lett., 2016, 18, 3926-3929.
Using bis(pinacolato)diboron, catalytic amounts of CuII, and various amine bases in water under atmospheric conditions at rt, acyclic and cyclic α,β-unsaturated ketones and esters are β-borylated in good yield. Mechanistic investigations suggest that the role of the amine is not only to coordinate to CuII but also to activate a nucleophilic water molecule to form a reactive sp2-sp3 diboron complex.
S. B. Thorpe, J. A. Calderone, W. L. Santos, Org. Lett., 2012, 14, 1918-1921.
A simple protocol for the borylation of alkenes with use of impregnated copper on magnetite showed a very broad scope. All type of olefins could be used with similar results. The catalyst can be magnetically removed and reused several times, showing similar activity
R. Cano, D. J. Ramón, M. Yus, J. Org. Chem., 2010, 75, 3458-3460.
A copper(I)-chiral secondary diamine complex catalyzes an enantioselective conjugate boration of β,β-disubstituted enones in high yields and up to 99% ee. The resulting chiral tertiary organoboronates can be converted to enantiomerically enriched β-hydroxy ketones without any racemization.
I-H. Chen, M. Kanai, M. Shibasaki, Org. Lett., 2010, 12, 4098-4101.
A N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) copper(I) complex generated in situ by the reaction of Cu2O and a planar and centrally chiral bicyclic 1,2,4-triazolium salt was an efficient catalyst for the asymmetric β-boration of acyclic enones, producing β-boryl ketones in high yields and enantioselectivities.
L. Zhao, Y. Ma, F. He, W. Duan, J. Chen, C. Song, J. Org. Chem., 2013, 78, 1677-1681.
A new planar and central chiral bicyclic triazolium ligand enables a highly efficient copper-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate boration. This protocol gave various chiral secondary alkylboronates in very good ee. A preliminary mechanistic study supports the bifunctional nature of the catalyst.
L. Zaho, Y. Ma, W. Duang, F. He, J. Chen, S. Soung, Org. Lett., 2012, 14, 5780-5783.
Regioselective copper-catalyzed boracarboxylation of vinyl arenes with bis(pinacolato)diboron and carbon dioxide provides boron-functionalized α-aryl carboxylic acids in good yields. The synthetic utility of the transformation was shown through subsequent derivatization of the carbon-boron bond yielding formal hydroxy- and fluorocarboxylation products as well as anionic difluoroboralactones.
T. W. Butcher, E. J. McClain, T. G. Hamilton, T. M. Perrone, K. M. Kroner, G. C. Donohoe, N. G Akhmedov, J. L. Petersen, B. V. Popp, Org. Lett., 2016, 18, 6428-6431.
A catalytic enantioselective conjugate boration of β-substituted cyclic enones in the presence of a QuinoxP*-CuOtBu complex produced enantiomerically enriched tertiary organoboronates. The substrate scope was broad, and high enantioselectivity was produced using both β-aromatic and aliphatic (linear and branched)-substituted cyclic enones with five- to seven-membered ring sizes.
I-H. Chen, L. Yin, W. Itano, M. Kanai, M. Shibasaki, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2009, 131, 11284-11285.
(η6-mes)IrBpin3 or [Ir(COD)OMe]2 catalyzes the borylation of cyclopropanes in the presence of the phenanthroline derivative 2,9-Me2phenanthroline as ligand. The borylation occurs selectively at the methylene C-H bonds of the cyclopropane ring in high diasteroselectivities. The cyclopropylboronate esters can be converted to trifluoroborate salts, boronic acids, cyclopropylarenes, cyclopropylamines, and cyclopropanols.
C. W. Liskey, J. F. Hartwig, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135, 3375-3378.
Rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydroboration of 3,3-disubstituted cyclopropenes gave 2,2-disubstituted cyclopropyl boronates with high degrees of diastereo- and enantioselectivity. Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of selected cyclopropylboronic derivatives produced corresponding optically active aryl- and vinylcyclopropanes in good yields.
M. Rubina, M. Rubin, V. Gevorgyan, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2003, 125, 7198-7199.
A dramatic rate acceleration in the copper-catalyzed addition of bis(pinacolato)diboron to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds was realized by adding alcohol additives. Various α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds were reacted to the corresponding β-boryl carbonyl compounds in high yields.
R. Varala, S. Nuvula, S. R. Adapa, J. Org. Chem., 2006, 71, 8283-8286.
A nickel catalyst system enables the β-boration of di-, tri-, and tetrasubstituted α,β-unsaturated esters and amides with bis(pinacolato)diboron in good yields.
K. Hirano, H. Yorimitsu, K. Oshima, Org. Lett., 2007, 9, 5031-5033.
Aryl cyclopropyl ketones undergo nickel-catalyzed borylative ring opening with bis(pinacolato)diboron to yield 4-oxoalkylboronates in good yield.
Y. Sumida, H. Yorimitsu, K. Oshima, J. Org. Chem., 2009, 74, 3196-3198.
In a catalytic enantioselective nucleophilic borylation, a series of aldehydes reacted with B2pin2 in the presence of a copper(I)/DTBM-SEGPHOS complex as catalyst and MeOH as a proton source to give the corresponding optically active α-alkoxyorganoboronate esters with excellent enantioselectivities. These products can readily be converted to chiral alcohol derivatives through stereospecific C-C bond forming reactions.
K. Kubota, E. Yamamoto, H. Ito, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2015, 137, 420-424.
Diboration of ketones with (ICy)CuOt-Bu as catalyst provides access to various tertiary α-hydroxyboronate esters. The catalyst was generated in situ with (ICy)CuCl and NaOt-Bu to afford a more efficient catalyst than the preformed (ICy)CuOt-Bu. Treatment of the resulting products with silica gel affords the corresponding α-hydroxyboronate esters.
M. L. McIntosh, C. M. Moore, T. B. Clark, Org. Lett., 2010, 12, 1996-1999.
A Cu-catalyzed regioselective and stereospecific aminoboration of styrenes with bis(pinacolato)diboron and O-benzoyl-N,N-dialkylhydroxylamines delivers β-aminoalkylboranes in good yields. The Cu catalysis enables introduction of both amine and boron moieties to C-C double bonds simultaneously in a syn fashion. Moreover, the use of a chiral biphosphine ligand, (S,S)-Me-Duphos, provides optically active β-aminoalkylboranes.
N. Matsuda, K. Hirano, T. Satoh, M. Miura, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135, 4934-4937.
A catalytic enantioselective diboration of vinyl boronate esters furnishes chiral tris(boronates). Subsequent intermolecular or intramolecular deborylative alkylation occurs in a diastereoselective fashion.
J. R. Coombs, L. Zhang, J. P. Morken, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 16140-16143.
A Co(I)-catalyzed, selective preparation of 1,1,1-tris(boronates) from vinylarenes and bis(pinacolato)diboron occurs at ambient temperature with excellent selectivity, high yields, and good functional group tolerance via double dehydrogenative borylations to generate an 1,1-diborylalkene intermediate followed by a hydroboration with pinacolborane formed in situ to yield the desired 1,1,1-tris(boronate).
L. Zhang, Z. Huang, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2015, 137, 15600-15603.
The reaction of 1,1-bis(pinacolboronate) esters with alkyl halides promoted by metal alkoxides provides organoboronate compounds via alkoxide-induced deborylation and generation of a boron-stabilized carbanion.
K. Hong, X. Liu, J. P. Morken, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 10581-10584.
In a Cu/(NHC)-catalyzed SN2'-selective substitution reaction of allylic electrophiles with gem-diborylalkanes, differently substituted gem-diborylalkanes and allylic electrophiles can be employed, and various synthetic valuable functional groups are tolerated. The use of chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands enables an asymmetric version.
Z.-Q. Zhang, B. Zhang, X. Lu, J.-H. Liu, X.-Y. Lu, B. Xiao, Y. Fu, Org. Lett., 2016, 18, 952-955.
The Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction between a diborylmethane derivative and allyl halides or benzyl halides proceeded efficiently in the presence of an appropriate Pd-catalyst at room temperature. The present approach provides functionalized homoallylboronates and alkylboronates with excellent regio- and chemoselectivities.
K. Endo, T. Ohkubo, T. Ishioka, T. Shibata, J. Org. Chem., 2012, 77, 4826-4831.