Organic Chemistry Portal
Reactions > Organic Synthesis Search

Categories: N-H Bond Formation >

Cleavage of imides

Protecting Groups


Phthalimides


Recent Literature


Phthalimides are converted to primary amines in an efficient, two-stage, one-flask operation using NaBH4/2-propanol, then acetic acid. Phthalimides of α-amino acids are smoothly deprotected with no measurable loss of optical activity.
J. O. Osby, M. G. Martin, B. Ganem, Tetrahedron Lett., 1984, 25, 2093-2096.


A ruthenium catalyst enables an unprecedented transformation of a wide range of phthalimides into amides in high yields and short reaction time in a single-step. The mechanism involces a unique, homogeneous pathway via five-membered ring opening and CO2 release with water as source of protons.
Y.-C. Yuan, R. Kamaraj, C. Brunaeu, T. Labasque, T. Roisnel, R. Gramage-Doria, Org. Lett., 2017, 19, 6404-6407.