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Synthesis of 3,4-dihydro-2-pyridinones

Recent Literature

An N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed oxidative LUMO activation of the β-carbons of saturated carboxylic esters enables an efficient asymmetric access to lactams and lactones. The method introduces functional groups at the typically inert β-sp3 carbons of saturated esters. The use of HOBt as an additive improves both yields and enantioselectivities of the reactions.
B. Liu, W. Wang, R. Huang, J. Yan, J. Wu, W. Xue, S. Yang, Z. Jin, Y. R. Chi, Org. Lett., 2018, 20, 260-263.

After NHC-catalyzed activation of acetic esters, the catalytically generated triazolium enolate intermediates serve as two-carbon nucleophiles that undergo highly enantioselective reactions with enones and α,β-unsaturated imines to give α-unsubstituted δ-lactones and lactams, respectively.
S. Chen, L. Hao, Y. Zhang, B. Tiwari, Y. R. Chi, Org. Lett., 2013, 15, 5822-5825.

An N-heterocyclic carbene catalyzes a highly enantioselective [3 + 3] annulation reaction of N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI) 3,3-disubstituted acrylates and N-Ts ketimines, providing the desired chiral dihydropyridinone products bearing an all carbon quaternary stereogenic center in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities. The reaction demonstrates that NHPI acrylates are excellent substrates in NHC-catalysis.
Z. Zhang, X. Zeng, D. Xie, D. Chen, L. Ding, A. Wang, L. Yang, G. Zhong, Org. Lett., 2015, 17, 5052-5055.