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Synthesis of 2H-indazoles

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An efficient synthesis of 2H-indazole derivatives in a one-pot three-component reaction of 2-chloro- and 2-bromobenzaldehydes, primary amines and sodium azide is catalyzed by copper(I) oxide nanoparticles (Cu2O-NP) under ligand-free conditions in polyethylene glycol (PEG 300) as a green solvent.
H. Sharghi, M. Aberi, Synlett, 2014, 25, 1111-1115.


2H-Indazoles are synthesized using a copper-catalyzed one-pot, three-component reaction of 2-bromobenzaldehydes, primary amines, and sodium azide. The catalyst plays the key role in the formation of C-N and N-N bonds. This method has a broad substrate scope with a high tolerance for various functional groups.
M. R. Kumar, A. Park, N. Park, S. Lee, Org. Lett., 2011, 13, 3542-3545.


In an operationally simple, mild and efficient one-pot synthesis of 2H-indazoles from commercially available reagents, ortho-imino-nitrobenzene substrates, generated via condensation, undergo reductive cyclization promoted by tri-n-butylphosophine to afford substituted 2H-indazoles. Various electronically diverse ortho-nitrobenzaldehydes and aromatic as well as aliphatic amines were examined.
N. E. Genung, L. Wei, G. E. Aspnes, Org. Lett., 2014, 16, 3114-3117.


1,2,2,3,4,4-hexamethylphosphetane catalyzes a deoxygenative N-N bond-forming Cadogan heterocyclization of o-nitrobenzaldimines and o-nitroazobenzenes with good functional group compatibility in the presence of phenylsilane as terminal reductant.
T. V. Nykaza, T. S. Harrison, A. Ghosh, R. A. Putnik, A. T. Radosevich, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2017, 139, 6839-6842.


A reductive cyclization of o-nitrobenzylidene amines under microwave conditions in the presence of MoO2Cl2(dmf)2 as catalyst and Ph3P as reducing agent delivers 2-aryl-2H-indazoles in good yields.
A. H. Moustafa, C. C. Malakar, N. Aljaar, E. Merisor, J. Conrad, U. Beifuss, Synlett, 2013, 24, 1573-1577.


Azobenzenes were readily acylated at the 2-position with aldehydes in good yields through a Pd-catalyzed C-H functionalization in the presence of TBHP. The obtained acylated azobenzenes could be efficiently converted into the corresponding indazole derivatives in nearly quantitative yields.
H. Li, P. Li, L. Wang, Org. Lett., 2013, 15, 620-623.


A rapid and efficient synthesis of 2H-indazoles, which involves a [3 + 2] dipolar cycloaddition of arynes and sydnones, proceeds under mild reaction conditions in good to excellent yields.
C. Wu, Y. Fang, R. C. Larock, F. Shi, Org. Lett., 2010, 12, 2171-2173.