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Synthesis of maleimides

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Intermolecular [2 + 2 + 1] ruthenium-catalyzed cocyclization of isocyanates, alkynes, and CO proceeded smoothly in mesitylene at 130C to give a variety of polysubstituted maleimides in excellent yields with high selectivity.
T. Kondo, M. Nomura, Y. Ura, K. Wada, T. Mitsudo, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2006, 128, 14816-14817.


An efficient and convenient palladium-catalyzed cyclization reaction of alkynes with isocyanides followed by hydrolysis enables a practical synthesis of a broad range of valuable polysubstituted maleimide derivatives under mild reaction conditions. Isocyanide serve as both C and N sources.
W. Hu, J. Zheng, J. Li, B. Liu, W. Wu, H. Liu, H. Jiang, J. Org. Chem., 2016, 81, 12451-12458.


Unsymmetrical 3,4-disubstituted maleimides have been synthesized by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of indium organometallics with 3,4-dihalomaleimides.Various alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, and alkynyl 3,4-disubstituted maleimides have been prepared in good yields and with high selectivity.
L. Bouissane, J. P. Sestelo, L. A. Sarandeses, Org. Lett., 2009, 11, 1285-1288.


Unsymmetrical 3,4-disubstituted maleimides have been synthesized by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of indium organometallics with 3,4-dihalomaleimides.Various alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, and alkynyl 3,4-disubstituted maleimides have been prepared in good yields and with high selectivity.
L. Bouissane, J. P. Sestelo, L. A. Sarandeses, Org. Lett., 2009, 11, 1285-1288.