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Synthesis of pyrazines

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[Cp*IrCl2]2 catalyzes a C-alkylation of a methyl group on N-heteroaromatic compounds, including pyridines, pyrimidines, pyrazines, quinolines, quinoxalines, and isoquinolines, with alcohols in the presence of potassium t-butoxide and 18-crown-6-ether.
M. Onoda, K.-i. Fujita, Org. Lett., 2020, 22, 7230-7233.


An efficient palladium(II)-catalyzed cascade reaction of aminoacetonitriles with arylboronic acids provides unsymmetrical 2,6-disubstituted pyrazines in very good yields. This transformation involves a C(sp)-C(sp2) coupling followed by an intramolecular C-N bond formation.
Y. Chen, Q. Zhu, H. Wang, Y. Yu, W. Chen, G. Zhang, Synthesis, 2023, 55, 2554-2560.


The reactivity of α-imino carbenoids derived from α-diazo oxime ethers with 2H-azirines enables a synthesis of unsymmetrically substituted pyrazines. The reaction provides highly substituted pyrazines in good to excellent yields.
N. S. Y. Loy, S. Kim, C.-M. Park, Org. Lett., 2015, 17, 395-397.


The combination of Pd/PTABS enables an exceptionally mild and highly efficient catalytic amination of chloroheteroarenes with secondary amines at ambient temperature.
S. S. M. Bandaru, S. Bhilare, N. Chrysochos, V. Gayakhe, I. Trentin, C. Schulzke, A. R. Kapdi, Org. Lett., 2018, 20, 473-476.